Recent Trends in Gynecology & Obstetrics

Open Access


Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis among Antenatal Women at a Private Hospital in Enugu: A 5-Year Retrospective Review

Odugu BU, Onyekpa IJ, Okpara TC.

Background: The inflammation of the liver as a result of infection by one or more classes of the viruses known as hepatitis is known as viral hepatitis. Hepatitis virus of public health importance and especially in pregnancy are majorly hepatitis-B and hepatitis-C. However, hepatitis-B appears to cause more harm both for the mother and her unborn child. Globally, hepatitis-B infections affect about 350 million people and these include pregnant women. It causes about 1.2 million deaths per annum and Nigeria is not spared from its onslaught. Proper knowledge about viral hepatitis is low resulting in a significant number of people living with the infection with its attendant consequences. This retrospective study becomes imperative as it will reveal the extent to which preventive programs of government have succeeded and to stimulate further study on the best approach in tackling the menace and reducing its consequences.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among antenatal women in a private hospital from December 31, 2022 to January 1, 2013.

Methodology: This was a retrospective review of all the antenatal women at the hospital from December 31st, 2022 to January 1st, 2018.

Data analysis: Data was analyzed with Statistical Product Service Solutions version 25.0 for windows and the result was presented using table, means, percentages and charts.

Result: From the data collated only 434 case files contained adequate information required for analysis. Out of the total, 148(34.1%) were aged 20-25 years, 122(28.1%) were aged 26-30 years and those aged 41 years or above were only 11(2.5%). Most of them were married constituting 95.2%. One hundred and sixty (36.9%) were small scale trader and 17(3.9%) were health workers whereas only 5(1.2%) were farmers. Forty percent of them were nulliparous whereas 1.9% were grand multiparous. Only 16(3.7%) of the clients had received blood transfusion in the past whereas the majority 418(96.3%) never received transfusion prior to screening. One hundred and ninety-nine (48.9%) did not have any prior knowledge their hepatitis-B status, 233(54.05%) were negative, and only 2(0.05%) were positive prior to the screening. On the other hand, 208(47.9%) of the clients did not have any knowledge of their hepatitis-C status, 226(52.1%) were negative and none was positive prior to their screening. The prevalence of hepatitis-B was 2.5% and that of hepatitis-C was 0.5%.

Age and marital status had no significant association with hepatitis-B infection; while occupation and parity showed significant association with a p-value of o.oo1 and 0.03 respectively. It was also found that there was no significant association between age, marital status, occupation or parity and hepatitis-C infection; as all the variables had p-values of greater than 0.05. The relative risk (RR) of testing positive by those who were ignorant of their status was 2(2) for hepatitis-B and 0.99(0%) for hepatitis-C.

Conclusion: There is a low prevalence of hepatitis-B and C among our antenatal women, but the risk of testing positive by those ignorant of their hepatitis-B status is high

View pdf